(being a continuation of the 'magazine of botany and zoology,' and of



Sir W. JARDINE, Bart., F.L.S.— P. J. SELBY, Esq., F.L.S.,



J. H. BALFOUR, M.D., Prof. Bot. Edinburgh,




LONDON .. „,^,







** Omnes res creatse sunt divinae sapientise et potentiae testes, divitiae felicitatis humanae: ex haruin usu bonitas Creatoris; ex pulchritudine sapientia Domini; ex oeconomia in conservatione, proportione, renovatione, potentia majestatis elucet. Earum itaque indagatio ab hominibus sibi relictis semper sestimata ; k ver6 eruditis et sapientibus semper exculta ; male doctis et barbaris semper inimica fuit"


The sylvan powers

Obey our summons ; from their deepest dells

The Dryads come, and thrbw their garlands wild

And odorous branches at our feet ; the Nymphs

That press with nimble step the mountain thyme

And purple heath -flower come not empty-handed,

But scatter round ten thousand forms minute

Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock

Or rifted oak or cavern deep : the Naiads too

Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face

They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush

That drinks the rippling tide : the frozen poles.

Where peril waits the bold adventurer's tread.

The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne,

All, all to us unlock their secret stores

And pay their cheerful tribute.







I. On some new genera and species of Palaeozoic Corals and Forami- nifera. By Frederick M'Coy, M.G.S. & N.H.S.D. &c 1

II. Note on the Colour of a Freshwater Loch. By George Dickie, M.D., Lecturer on Zoology and Botany in the University and King's College of Aberdeen 20

III. Stirpes Cryptogamse Sarnienses; or Contributions towards the Cryptogamic Flora of Guernsey. By the Rev. T. Salwey, Oswestry... 22

IV. On the Structure and Habits of the OrohanchacecB. By Arthur Henfrey, F.L.S 29

V. Remarks on the British Geodephaga ; with Notes on some Scyd- meenidce and Fselaphidce. By Dr. H. Schaum 32

VI. On the mode of growth in Oscillatoria and allied genera. By John Ralfs, M.R.C.S., Penzance 39

VII. On the Structure of the Teeth of some Fossil Fish of the Car- boniferous Period. By Prof. Owen, F.R.S 41

VIII. Descriptions of yi'jo/iiJe^y. By Francis Walker, F.L.S. ... 43

IX. Observations on Mr. M'Coy's description of the Tail of Diplo- pterus. By Sir Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton, Bart 53

Neiv Books : An Introduction to Botany, by J. Lindley, Ph.D., F.R.S. Narrative of an Expedition into Central Australia during the years 1844-5 & 6, &c., by Captain Charles Sturt, F.L.S.: with a Botanical Appendix by Robert Brown, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.L.S., and Ornithological Notices by John Gould, F.R.S. Ar- ran and Excursions to Arran, with reference to the Natural Hi- story of the Island, by the Rev. David Landsborough 55 61

Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh ; Royal Physical

Society of Edinburgh ; Zoological Society 61 73

Journey to explore the Province of Para ; How to prevent the Attacks


Page of the Bed-bug, Cimex lectularius, by John Blackwall, F.L.S. ; JDescription of Sarcoptilus, a new genus of Pennatulidce, by J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S. &c. ; Remarkable Instances of Instinct, or In- telligence, in Animals, by Dr. Warwick; Note on the genus i5ra- chycladium ; Prevention of Bugs, by Thomas Stratton, R.N.; Me- teorological Observations and Table 74 80


X. The Musci and Hepaticae of the Pyrenees. By Richard Spruce, Esq. (With three Plates.) 81

XL Algae Orientales : Descriptions of new species belonging to the genus Sargassum. By R. K. Greville, LL.D. &c. (With a Plate.) 106

XII. Observations on the Minute Structure and Mode of Contraction of Voluntary Muscular Fibre. By W. Murray Dobie, F.B.S.E. (With

a Plate.) 109

XIII. On some new genera and species of Palaeozoic Corals and Foraminifera. By Frederick M'Coy, M.G.S. & N.H.S.D. &c 119

XIV. Supplementary Notices regarding the Dodo and its Kindred. Nos. 1, 2, 3. By H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.G.S 136

XV. Reply to Sir Philip Egerton's Letter on the Tail of Diplopterus.

By Frederick M'Coy, M.G.S. & N.H.S.D. &c 139

XVL Reply to Prof. Owen's Letter on the Ganoine of some Fish- teeth. By Frederick M'Coy, M.G.S. & N.H.S.D. &c 140

XVII. Contributions to the Botany of South America. By John Miers, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S 141

New Books: The Treasury of Natural History, or a Popular Dic- tionary of Animated Nature, by Samuel Maunder, Esq 146

Proceedings of the Zoological Society ; Botanical Society of Edin- burgh 148—154

On the Existence of an Ovum or Ovule as well in the Male as in the Female of Plants and Animals, producing in the one case Sper- matozoa or Pollen grains, in the other the primitive Cells of the Embryo, by Ch. Robin, M.D. ; On the Gum Kino of the Tenas- serim Provinces, by the Rev. F. Mason ; Meteorological Observa- tions and Table 154—160


XVIII. Observations upon several genera hitherto placed in Sola- nacecB^ and upon others intermediate between that family and the Scro- phulariacece. By John Miers, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c 161

XIX. On the Anatomy Eolis, a genus of Mollusks of the order Nudibranchiata. By Albany Hancock and Dennis Embleton, M.D. (With two Plates.) 183



XX. Brief Notice of several Mammalia and Birds discovered by

B. il. Hodgson, Esq., in Upper India. By Thomas Horsfield, M.D. 202

XXI. Notes on Chalcidites, and descriptions of various new species.

By Francis Walker, F.L.S 204

XXII. Some Account of the Storm of January in Bedfordshire. By John Martin, Esq 210

XXIII. Descriptions of five new species of Coleoptera. By the Rev. J. F. Dawson, LL.B 213

XXIV. Algse Orientales : Descriptions of new species belonging to

i\\e genns Sargassum. By R. K. Greville, LL.D. &c. (With a Plate.) 216

XXV. On the Gonidia of Lichens. By G. H. K. Thwaites, Lec- turer on Botany and Vegetable Physiology at the Bristol Medical School. (With a Plate.) 219

New Books : Illustrations of the Proceedings of the Zoological So- ciety. Parti 222

Proceedings of the Zoological Society 224 233

Note on the Development and Organization of Infusoria Gyratory Movements of the Vitellus : Pulsations of the Contractile Vesicle in the Egg, by M. F. Pouchet ; British Museum, Zoological De- partment, Conchology ; English Wild Beasts a Century and a half ago ; On Thaliella, a new genus of Cirripedes allied to Scalpellum, by J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S. ; Post-office Regulations; TheTui, or Parson-bird ; Obituary : Mr. Edward Forster ; Rossia Owenii, Ball ; Meteorological Observations and Table 233 240


XXVI. Note on Cystocoleus, a new genus of minute Plants. By G. H. K. Thwaites, Lecturer on Botany and Vegetable Physiology

in the Bristol Medical School. (With a Plate.) 241

XXVII. Description o^ Coccochloris Brehissonii, a new species of the Palmellece, in conjugation. By G. H. K. Thwaites. (With a Plate.) 243

XXVIII. On some new Palaeozoic Echinodermata. By Frederick M'CoY, M.G.S. & N.H.S.D. &c 244

XXIX. Algse Orientales: Descriptions of new species belonging to the genus Sargassum. By R. K. Greville, LL.D. &c. (With a Plate.) 254

XXX. Descriptions of two new Birds from Jamaica. By Philip Henry Gosse, Esq 257

XXXI. Supplementary Notices regarding the Dodo and its Kindred. ' Nos. 4, 5. By H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.G.S 259

XXXII. Contributions to the Botany of South America. By John MiERs, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S .'. 261



XXXIII. The Musci and Hepaticae of the Pyrenees. By Richard Spruce, Esq 269

XXXIV. Observations on the Animal of Kellia rubra ^hy Willi au Clark, Esq., in a Letter to Professor Edward Forbes 293

XXXV. Descriptions of .^4pA^6?e5. By Francis Walker, F.L.S. ... 295

Proceedings of the Zoological Society 305 312

On Poly cotyledon ous Embryos, by M. P. Duchartre ; Preparation of Pineapple Fibres in Singapore for the Manufacture of Pina Cloth ; Advantages accruing from the Study of Entomology ; Description of a new Mexican Quail, by William Gambel, M.D. ; Descriptions of two new Californian Quadrupeds, by William Gambel, M.D. ; Meteorological Observations and Table 312 320


XXXVI. On the Excavating Powers of certain Sponges belonging to the genus Cliona ; with descriptions of several new Species, and an allied generic form. By Albany Hancock, Esq. (With four Plates.) 321

XXXVII. On the mode of growth in Calothrix and allied genera.

By John Ralfs, M.R.C.S., Penzance 348

XXXVIII. Additions to the Fauna of Ireland. By William Thompson, Esq., Pres. Nat. Hist, and Phil. Society of Belfast 351

XXXIX. The Musci and Hepaticae of the Pyrenees. By Richard Spruce, Esq 358

XL. Observations on the recent Foraminifera. By William Clark, Esq 380

XLI. On the Animal of Kellia rubra. By Joshua Alder, Esq. ... 383

XLII. Description of a bag- shaped, glandular apparatus on a Bra- zilian Bat, the Emhallonura canina of Prince Maximilian. By Prof. J. T. Reinhardt 386

XLIII. On some Families and Genera of Corals. By William King, F.G.S. France 388

New Books: Rare and Remarkable Animals of Scotland, represented from living subjects; with Practical Observations on their Nature, by Sir John Graham Dalyell, Bart. First Steps to Zoology, by Robert Patterson, Esq. The Elements of Botany, by A. De Jus- sieu. Translated by J. H. Wilson, F.L.S. &c 391—397

Proceedings of the Zoological Society ; Royal Society ; Botanical So- ciety of Edinburgh 397—427

Observations on the Geology and Natural History of Mexico, by W.

H. Pease ; Meteorological Observations and Table 427 432



XLIV. On the British species of Plumhaginacece. By Charles C. Babington, M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S 483

XLV. Contrihutions to the Botany of South America. By John MiERs, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S 443

XLVI. On the Animal of Ke Ilia rubra. By W. Clark, Esq 452

XLVII. An Account of a Specimen of the Faagmaer, or Vogmarus Islandicus {Trachypterus Bogmarus of Cuvier and Valenciennes), thrown ashore in the Firth of Forth. By John Reid, M.D., Professor of Anatomy and Medicine in the University of St. Andrews. (With a Plate.) 456

XLVIII. The Musci and Hepaticse of the Pyrenees. By Richard Spruce, Esq 478

XLIX. Algae Orientales : Descriptions of new species belonging to the genus Sargassum. By R. K, Greville, LL.D. &c. (With a Plate.) .... = 503

L. On the MoUusca of Vigo Bay in the North-west of Spain, by Robert MacAndrew, Esq., F.L.S,, in a Letter to Professor Edward Forbes, F.R.S 507

LI. On the Identification of a new Genus of Parasitic Insects, An- thophorabia. By George Newport, Esq., F.R.S. & L.S 513

Proceedings of the Royal Society; Botanical Society of Edinburgh 518 520

Capnodium, novum Fungorum genus, by C. Montagne, D.M. ; Podi-

soma fuscum ] Meteorological Observations and Table 520 523

Index 524


Plate L Hypnum pyrenaiciim. Dicranum glaucum.-— Poly tri chum al- pinum. II. Isothecium Philippianum. ni. Southbya tophacea. IV. New specie? of Sargassum.

V )

Yl* > Anatomy of Eolis.

VII. Sfructure of Muscular Fibre.

VIII. Synalissa vulgaris. Cystocoleus ebeneus. Coccoclilovis Brebis- sonii.


X. V New species of Sargassum.


XII.^ XIV r^®^ species of Excavating Sponges.


XVI. Structure of Vogmarus Islandicus.

ERRATUM. Page 6, 9 lines from top, /or 11.5 to 180, nad 115 to 130.





•' per litora spargite museum.

Naiades, et circiim vitreos considite fontes : Pollice virgineo teneros hic carpite flores : Floribus et pictum, divae, replete canistrum. At vos, o Nymphffi Craterides, ite sub undas ; Ite, recurvato variata corallia trunco Vellite muscosis e rupibus, et mihi conchas Ferte, l)e» pelagi, et pingui conchylia succo."

N. Parthenii Giannettasii Eel. 1.

No. la. JANUARY 1849.

1. On some new genera and species of Palaozoic Corals and For a- minifera. By Frederick M^Coy, M.G.S. & N.H.S,D, &c.


Petraia^ gigas (M'Coy), Sp, Char. Obtusely conical, slightly oblique, section elliptical ; internal cast divided into forty broad, flat, smooth ribs, sepa- rated by the strong sulci of the principal lamellse reaching to the centre ; each of those ribs is divided by a fine mesial sulcus, the remains of the intermediate lamellse, not reaching to the centre, making the total number of lamellse about eighty. Length of imperfect cast 2 inches 7 lines ; width of long axis at base 11 lines, at edge of cup 3 inches 7 lines (compressed), width of ribs 2 lines.

This large and strongly marked species from the number of its lamellse can only be confounded with the P. pluriradialis (Phil, sp.) and P. elongata (Phil, sp.), from both of which it dif- fers in its form and great size, width of ribs on the cast, absence of the punctures, &c. The strong primary lamellae reach the centre with a very slight indication of twisting ; the secondary ones are very delicate towards the base, but become nearly equal

* Having examined Count Miinster's original specimens of several spe- cies of his genus Petraia, I have satisfied myself that they are really corals, as suggested by Mr. Lonsdale and others, although he describes them in his * Beitrage ' as Gasteropods, the publication of which view prevented Prof. Phillips adopting the genus in his work on the Fossils of Devon and Corn- wall.

Ann. it; Mag, N. Hist. Ser. 2. PW. iii. 1

2 Mr. F. M'Coy on some new genera and species of

in strength to the others as they approach the edge of the cup. The denticulation of the laraellse is scarcely perceptible.

Not uncommon in the fine gray Devonian slates of New Quay.

{Col. University of Cambridge.)

Clisiophyllum Keyserlingii (M^Coy).

Sp, Char. Conical, slightly curved, terminal cell obhque, 1 inch 2 lines in diameter in a specimen 3 inches long ; surface finely striated longitudinally (about eight strise in one-fourth of an inch) ; lamellae thin, equal, about fifty-one, descending straight into the deep part of the terminal star, and then abruptly twisted spirally about an imaginary axis, forming a prominent conical centre about one-third the diameter of the cup, and as high as its base is wide.

This highly typical species of Mr. Dana^s American genus Clisiophyllum is closely allied to the Cyathophyllum coniseptum of Count Keyserling's * Wissenschaftliche Beobachtungen auf einer Reise in das Petschora-Land,' from which it is distinguished by the strong twisting of the plates about the central cone, and by having little more than half the number of lamellse at the same diameter. Viewing with Mr. Dana the conical arrangement of the septa as a generic instead of a specific character, it seems probable that the two varieties given by Count Keyserling of his Cyath. coniseptum are really two species ; and the present species, though presenting some intermediate characters, is I think distinct ; if hereafter any one should think otherwise, they still could hardly object to the name I have proposed in honour of so enterprising a geologist, the more so as the term coniseptum would not be ap- plicable as a specific name in the genus Clisiophyllum^ where all have the conical arrangement of septa alluded to ; there can how- ever, I think, be little doubt of the distinctness of the species. In the transverse section the central area seems a confused, close crumpling of vesicular plates occupying rather more than one- third the whole diameter, and from it to the circumference the strong, equal, rather distant plates radiate. The external ver- tical striae are double the number of the actual radiating lamellae.

Rare in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire.

{CoL University of Cambridge.)

Clisiophyllum biparfi^m (M^Coy) . Sp. Char. Very elongate- conic, nearly cylindrical, with a dia- meter of 1^ inch for the greater part of its length ; strongly and regularly striated externally (about five striae in one-fourth of an inch) ; external striae corresponding in number to the radiating lamellae : in the transverse rough section the central area is rather less than one-third the whole diameter, composed of the edges of confusedly blended vesicular plates, crossed by

Palaozoic Corals and Foraminifera. 3

a few faint extensions of the radiating lamellae, and divided into two symmetrical portions by a strong median fissure ; the space between this inner area and the outer wall is regularly radiated with from sixty-three to sixty-nine equal, thin, rather distant lamellse connected by numerous delicate, transverse, vesicular plates ; terminal cup deep, lined by the^vertical la- mellse, and having a large oval prominent boss in the centre traversed by a sharp mesial crest ; about one-half or one-third of the radiating lamellse ascend the central boss, always in a direct line, those at the sides of the mesial crest being at right angles to it, the others joining at a more acute angle as they approach the extremity, and opposite one end of the crest we generally observe one or two of the radiating lamellse shorter than the rest, producing a sort of siphon-like irregularity such as we see in Caninia : vertical section indistinctly triareal ; outer area defined, about one- sixth of the width on each side, composed of small, much-curved, vesicular plates, forming small semicircular cells arranged in very oblique rows upwards and outwards, about seven in a row ; inner zone about equal- ling the outer one in width, passing gradually into the central structure, formed of slightly larger and less curved vesicular plates than the outer zone, and having a nearly horizontal di- rection ; central area composed of large, thin, close, little- curved, vesicular plates, forming a strongly arched series of narrow, elongate cells, the convexity of the arch upwards, con- forming to the shape of the central boss in the cup ; if the ver- tical section be at right angles to the medial fissure or crest of the central boss, there is a line visible down the middle of the section.

This coral is interesting to the physiologist from the combi- nation of the bipartite or symmetrical with the radiated type of structure, as in some FungicB, &c. It nearly equals the Caninia gigantea (Mich.) in size and cylindrical form, but is easily distin- guished by the strong longitudinal strise of the surface, the want of transverse septa in the central area, &c.

Rather common in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire.

{Col. University of Cambridge.)

Clisiophyllum prolapsum (M'Coy) .

Sp. Char. Elongate- conic, much curved and twisted on its axis, terminal cell oblique, deep, vrith steep sides, a narrow flattened or concave space at bottom, from which protrudes the central boss, which is about one -third the diameter of the cup, nearly as high as wide, cylindrical, obtusely rounded above, and with a deep umbilical cavity in the middle (in partially decomposed or weathered specimens a rough vertical fracture frequently


Mr. F. M'Coy on some new genera and species of

shows the central area as a thick, smooth, persistent tube) ; diameter of the adult little more than an inch, and which it attains at two inches long, remaining nearly cylindrical after that length ; surface closely striated longitudinally, about fifteen striae in one-fourth of an inch, corresponding in number with the radiating lamellse : hojnzontal section, inner area rather more than one-third the diameter, of small, closely blended, vesicular plates; outer area with 180 radiating lamellse, ninety of which reach from the wall to the edge of the inner area, and ninety intermediate ones only reach half way ; intermediate transverse vesicular plates very delicate : vertical section, inner area defined by rather thick walls ; it consists of minute, com- pressed, elongate cells, arranged in transverse curved rows, the convexity of the curve upwards ; outer area, large cellular structure, inclining upwards and outwards.

Rather common in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. {Col. University of Cambridge.)

Strephodes (M'Coy), n. g.

Etym. o-T/3e(/)ft), torqueo (from the twisting of the lamellse

about the centre).

(Strombodes pars of Lonsdale, not of Schweigger.)

Gen. Char. Corallum simple and conic, or compound and form- ing rounded masses of inseparably united poly- gonal cells; in either case the terminal cup is deep with numerous equal, ra- diating lamellse, conver- ging from the walls to the centre, where they meet and are complicated, usually twisted in bun- dles about an imaginary axis : vertical section, small vesicular struc- ture, the rows of cells ar- ranged in a semielliptical curve, convexity down- wards, descending from the sides at a steep angle and rounding under the centre, where the cells Strephodes : a. vertical section and termi- are a little larger than ^^^ ^^^^^ of compound species ; b. do. sim- at the sides : horizontal P^^ 'P^^^^^'

Palaozoic Corals and Foraminifera. 5

section^ radiating lamellae meeting and complicated in the cen- tre, connected by very thin transverse vesicular plates, and the stars of the compound species separated by thick divisional walls : budding in the compound species marginal, in the sim- ple species often exhibiting periodical death and continuance of growth from the centre, giving an imbricating " ringed ** appearance to the exterior.

This genus is most allied to Cyathophyllum and Clisiophyllumy all three having simply conic and compound polygonal-celled species. Strephodes differs from Cyathophyllum by the equality of the radiating lamellae and their meeting in the centre both in the terminal cup and horizontal section, and in wanting the transverse diaphragms ; from Clisiophyllum, which it resembles in the meet- ing of the lamellse in the centre and the absence of horizontal diaphragms, it differs in the centre (though often slightly pro- jecting) not being elevated into the large tent-like cone, charac- teristic of that genus, and in the rows of vesicular cells in the vertical section not having the reversed upward curvature which is connected with that peculiar form of cell. The simple species have been placed I cannot imagine why in the genus Strom- bodes of Schweigger by Mr. Lonsdale and some others (see the observations below on this latter genus). The compound species differ from Astraa, with which many palaeontologists confound them, by the solid boundary- walls to the cells (see note on this genus below), and from Acervularia (Schweig., not Lonsd.) by the marginal budding and want of the central tube of that genus.

The genus Streptoplasma of Hall in his recent volume on the Palaeontology of New York, although defined nearly in the same manner, and the name having the same meaning, applies ob- viously according to his specific descriptions and figures of all the species, not to the present corals, but to those known in Europe under the names Petraia and Turbinolopsis, in which the lamellae extend directly and simply almost to the centre, only the most minute portion of the centre exhibiting in some species a trace of twisting, and there being none of the vesicular plates between the lamellae which are so strongly developed in the present group.

Strephodes multilamellatum (M'Coy).

Sp. Char. Elongate-conic, very gradually tapering (generally about 5 inches long, with a diameter of about IJ inch at the termination) ; terminal cell oblique, oval, the short axis about one-third less than the long; surface regularly girt at about every quarter of an inch with slightly oblique, strong cup-

6 Mr. F. M'Coy on some new genera and species of

shaped rims of growth, concave above and produced by the successive growths from the centre leaving the prominent edges of the previous cells ; weathered surface finely striated by the edges of the vertical lamellae, of which there are about twelve in a quarter of an inch : the horizontal oval section shows the centre to be excentric, close to one of the broad sides, and formed by the twisting of the radiating lamellae about an ima- ginary axis ; radiating lamellse very thin, of equal thickness, about 115 to 180 at the margin, some stopping and some uniting as they approach the centre, about which they are twisted in parcels ; all the lamellae connected throughout, at regular intervals, by minute transverse vesicular plates : in- ternal structure exposed by horizontal and vertical sections, uniformly and minutely cellular.

The great number and closeness of the lamellae distinguish this species from those published forms allied to it.

Rare in the lower carboniferous limestones of Arnside, Kendal, and Lisardrea, Boyle, co. Roscommon, Ireland.

{CoL University of Cambridge.)

Cyathaxonia costata (M'Coy).

Sp. Char. Elongate-conic, generally about one inch long and half an inch in diameter at the cup, which is circular and horizontal ; surface irregularly wrinkled transversely, and marked longitudinally with remarkably thick, strong, sharply- defined striae, about seven in one-fourth of an inch ; central solid axis very thick (often one line in diameter), and from it twenty-six thick, wedge-like, vertical lamellae radiate to the walls ; transverse vesicular plates connecting the lamellae ex- ceedingly delicate ; in the sections the vertical lamellae are seen to dichotomise upwards, and the large curved plates of the loose vesicular structure incline upwards and inwards towards the axis.

This is more slender in form than the C. mitratum (Schlot. sp.) or C. cornu-copice (Mich.), and from which and all the other tur- binated corals of the palaeozoic rocks it is distinguished externally by the strong, distinct, distant longitudinal ridges ; the internal characters approximate it only to the Cyathaooonia cornu (Mich.), from which it is distinguished by its simple, few and thick la- mellae and thick axis, as well as more turbinate form.

Rare in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire.

[Col. University of Cambridge.)

Palaeozoic Corals and Foraminifera. 7

Cyathophyllum dianthoides (M'Coy).

^p. Char. Corallum very proliferous, forming wide conical groups; individual cones rapidly expanding, averaging one-third (or less) longer than wide, concentrically wrinkled and with obsolete longitudinal striae externally ; terminal cup very deep with either a sharp or truncated edge, and containing from 96 to 100 (as it approaches one inch in diameter) very thin, crenulated radiating lamellse, alternately longer and shorter : vertical section shows less than one-third the diameter on each side occupied by minute vesicular tissue, the rows of cells ex- tending obliquely upwards and outwards ; the broad middle part is occupied by close, thick, transverse diaphragms. From eight to sixteen young cones take their origin from the inner part of the margin of favourably situated parent- cups, thus forming compound masses 3 inches or more in diameter, adult cones averaging 1^ inch long.

This is closely allied to the C dianthus, Gold, {truncatus, Linn.), and the compound examples of C. turhinatum (Linn, and Gold.), but is distinguished from the first by its wide, rapidly expanding cones, and from both by the lamellse being distinctly of two al- ternating sizes, much thinner and greatly more numerous.

Common in the carboniferous limestone of Arnside, Kendal.

(Col. University of Cambridge.)

Cyathophyllum paracida (M'Coy).

Sp. Char. Corallum of slender cones averaging half an inch wide at mouth and 1^ inch long (generally somewhat smaller), straight or variously bent, and sometimes irregularly coales- cing so as to form loose irregular masses ; three or four young cones take their origin from within the margin of the parent cell, which they smother by their growth : internal structure, centre occupied by broad slightly undulated transverse dia- phragms, four-fifths the width of the tubes ; narrow outer area occupied by thirty-two equal, narrow, radiating lamellse, va- riously connected by small, curved, vesicular plates ; outer sur- face faintly striated longitudinally.

Allied to the C. caspitosum and C. quadrigeminum of the older rocks, but the branches are not so long and cylindrical as in the first, nor so short or laterally united as in the latter ; the number of the lamellse and character of the narrow lamelliferous zone, and the very wide, distinct transverse diaphragms will serve to dis- criminate even fragments of the species.

Not uncommon in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire.

{Col. University of Cambridge.)

8 Ml*. F. M^Coy on some new genera and species of

Cyathophyllu7n pseudo -vermicular e (M^Coy) .

Sp. Char. Elongate, cylindrical, flexuous ; surface very irregular, annulated or transversely nodular, coarsely striated longitudi- nally (about six striae in one-fourth of an inch) ; branches ave- raging from half to three-fourths of an inch in diameter ; small cylindrical branches project at distant irregular intervals from the sides : internal structure, central area rather more than half the diameter of the tube, defined, composed of flat, slightly undulated transverse septa, bearing at their circumference a series of from twenty-four to twenty- seven very short, rather distant radiating lamellse, not reaching half-way to the centre ; interval between this inner area and the walls filled with loose cellular structure, formed of small vesicular curved plates, highly inclined upwards and outwards.

This interesting coral perfectly resembles the Cyathophyllum vermiculare of Goldfuss in external characters, but by cutting and grinding down some specimens of the true Eifel coral of that species, I have ascertained beyond doubt (what was before suspected by Mr. Lonsdale) that it is not a true Cyathophyllum, but belongs to that group which I have named Strephodes, having the radiating lamellse extending from the walls to the centre, and there twisted together without transverse diaphragms ; it also has the curious character of the radiating lamellse having an elliptical section, being thicker in the middle than at either end, a pecu- liarity which I have also noticed in a British (Devonian) speci- men of the same species, though not alluded to by Mr. Lonsdale in his note on this species in the memoir of Prof. Sedgwick and Sir E,. Murchison on the Devonian System. The present moun- tain limestone coral I have shown above to possess the true Cya- thophyllum structure, and it is not therefore likely, after what I have stated with regard to the Devonian species, to be in future confounded with it. Externally it also bears a strong resemblance to the mountain limestone fossil which I have called Lonsdaleia duplicata (Mart, sp.), but that coral I have ascertained to possess the very different internal structure of Lithostrotion of Lonsdale {Strombodes of Schweigger), and it is consequently with a little care incapable of being confounded with the present fossil.

Not uncommon in the lower carboniferous limestone of Ken- dal; a variety also occurs in the lower carboniferous limestone of Kiltullagh, Roscommon, L^eland.

{Col. University of Cambridge.)

Diphyphyllum lateseptatum (M'Coy).

Bp. Char. Stems upwards of 8 inches long, cylindrical, about 3 lines in diameter ; nearly smooth, very faintly striated Ion-

Palaozoic Corals and Foraminifet^a. 9

gitudinally, and obsoletely wrinkled concentrically : vertical section, middle area occupied by slightly irregular transverse diaphragms extending across two-thirds the diameter of the tubes, about four in the vertical space of one line, their edges abruptly bent downwards ; lateral areas very narrow, of equal width, the inner composed of one set of minute horizontal plates, the outer of two rows of minute, curved, vesicular plates inclining upwards and outwards.

This species differs from the D. concinnum (Lonsd.) of the carboniferous limestone east of the Ural chain, in the great pro- portional width of the transverse medial plates, which average two- thirds the diameter of the stem, or three times the width of the two outer areas of one side in the present species, but average one- third the diameter of the stem, or about equal to the two outer areas of one side in the other. The dichotomous mode of divi- sion of the stems characteristic of this group, and also the conical upward projections of the centre of the transverse lamellse im- mediately under the point of fissure, were very well shown in many of the specimens.

Abundant in the carboniferous limestone near Corwen.

[Col. University of Cambridge.)

Stylastrcea irregularis (M^Coy).

Sp. Char. Corallum of polygonal (five- or six-angled) tubes two lines in diameter, of such twisted and irregular upward growth that a vertical fracture frequently exposes a mixed appearance of outer walls and internal section ; outer surface longitudi- nally striated and transversely wrinkled by waves of growth : vertical section, inner area broad, regularly septate by nearly straight, equal, thick transverse plates ; outer area very nar- row, composed of much-curved vesicular plates, forming rather open rounded cells, in rows obliquely upwards and outwards, two or three in a row : horizontal section, central area smooth, surrounded by about thirty slightly flexuous radiating lamellse from the walls, fifteen of which are much shorter than the others ; near the walls the radiating lamellse are connected by few, thick, vesicular plates.

This species is remarkable for the peculiar, irregularly twisted mode of growth of the columns, which, when the rock is com- pact, gives the mixed character to the fracture seemingly between that of Lithostrotion {Strombodes) and Stijlastraa. It is also re- markable for the nearly perfect transverse chambering of the central area. The small diameter of the tubes and few lamellse easily distinguish it from the other allied species.

10 Mr. F. M'Coy on some new genera and species of

Forms small masses in the carboniferous limestone of Derby- shire.

{Col. University of Cambridge.)


Strombodes (Schweigger, not of Lonsdale) = Lithostrotion (Lonsd.).

This genus is defined by Prof. Schweigger (Beobachtungen auf Naturhistorischen Reisen, &c. tab. 6) as " Cellul-ce lamellosce, centro depresso. Stirps e conis lamellosis in strata horizontalia conjunctis. Cellula terminalis cyathiformis.'^ And he makes two divisions : 1st, ^^ coni e centro proliferiy'' for which he refers to the ^ Amoenitates Academicse ^ of Linnseus, vol. i. pi. at p. 313, figs. 11 and 4 (this figure however shows the origin of a marginal hud at one point) . His 2nd group, " coni e disco proliferi" and the reference to the same plate, figs. 10 and 3, belong to a true Cyathophyllum (C. dianthus, Gold.) ; his 1st group and the refer- ence to the figures and description in the ' Amcenitates Acade- micae ' must therefore be taken as the type of the genus, and seem fully to justify the reference by Goldfuss of his American Strom- bodes pentagonum to this genus, the more so when the reference in Fougt^s description, above referred to, to fig. 18 of the above plate, is taken into account. A coral perfectly similar to that of Goldfuss has been also figured by Mr. Dana in ' Silliman's Journal ' as an example of Strombodes. As therefore the notion that those compound polygonal-celled corals, are the true Strom- bodes of Schweigger seems to prevail extensively, and I think justly, it only remains for me to add, that having carefully ex- amined authentic specimens of the S. pentagonum, 1 find the cone- in- cone appearance of some of the figures to be produced by a peculiarity of weathering by which many of the vesicular plates towards the circumference of the stars have fallen out, and that the coral truly possesses all the characters so admirably eluci- dated by Mr. Lonsdale in the ' Geology of Russia ' under the title oi Lithostrotion, a name which it would be well now to replace by the old title Strombodes of Schweigger. In no case could either the definition or references of Schweigger justify the placing those Silurian and Devonian corals called Strombodes by Mr. Lonsdale in this genus. The following species is generically placed in accordance with this view.

Strombodes conaxis (M'Coy).

Sp. Char. Columns irregularly aggregated, averaging half an inch in width, mostly hexagonal : axis elliptical, formed of a series

Palcsozoic Corals and Foraminifera. 11

of closely superposed conical plates, connected by a few fine vertical lamellae : lamelliferous zone surrounding the axis nar- row, of about forty-two alternately broad and rudimentary lamellse, the interstitial plates of which are nearly horizontal : outer zone wide, formed of large arched plates, not highly in- clined, and forming a loosely vesicular structure : terminal star, axis very prominent, oval, vertically ribbed, but not twisted, seated in a deep oval or circular cup, lined by the strong ra- diating lamellae ; outer zone nearly flat, oblique at the sides, faintly marked with rather distant, fine lines, representing the strong radiating lamellae of the inner zone, continued to the boundaries of the cells, which are strong, prominent and slightly crenulated.

A vertical section shows first, the outer largely vesicular area formed of broad, curved, slightly inclined plates ; between this and the inner area there is a fine vertical defining line, within which the plates of the inner zone are seen to be finer and closer than those of the outer, forming a smaller cellular structure ; the rows of cells are nearly horizontal near the outer zone, but within seem gradually to bend up and become continuous with the co- nical cup-like plates forming the axis ; those conical plates of the axis seem connected by extremely delicate, irregular, radiating plates ; in a rough transverse section the axis appears as a deep conical hollow on the under side. It will thus be seen that in the remarkable cone-in-cone structure of the axis this resembles the Russian Strombodes mammillare and >S^. astroides {Lithostrotion id. of Lonsdale), from both of which it difi'ers in the axis not being twisted in the terminal star, in the outer zone not being traversed by strong radiating lamellae, from the former in the much less obliquity of the plates of the outer area, and from the latter by the largely cellular structure of the outer area, as well as the di- stinctness of all the three areas under every circumstance. In general appearance and imperfect radiation of the outer area it resembles the S. emar datum and S.floriforme {Lithostrotion id. of Lonsdale), but is distinguished from the first by the rudimentary radiating lamellae between the primary ones, and from both by the conical structure of the axis, which is formed in them of irregularly twisted vertical plates.

Not uncommon in the carboniferous limestone near Bakewell, Derbyshire.

{Col. University of Cambridge.)

Lonsdaleia (M'Coy), n. g.

Gen. Char. Corallum composed of circular, tapering, proliferous stems, never laterally united ; internally composed of three

12 Mr. F. M^Coy on some new genera and species of

areas ; 1st, a cylindrical, de- fined, complex axis composed of irregularly blended vesicular plates ; 2nd, a cylindrical, de- fined area of strong, vertical, radiating lamellse, connected by thin transverse dissepi- ments, only visible in the ver- tical section ; Srd, a wide, largely cellular outer zone be- tween the vertical lamellse and the external wall of the stem, composed of much- curved vesicular plates extending ob- liquely upwards and outwards :

outer walls of the tubes longi- Lonsdaleia : a old branch exterior tudinally striated and trans- ^:^i^^^t'^'-^ ^^^ versely rugose : reproduction b. Transverse section showing the by circular germs developed in three areas and a bud ( X ) grow- the cellular outer zone, and i"? '^ the outer one. springing at once obliquely '' '^''''''^^ «^^*;«"- without the area of the parent stem, which continues its growth uninterruptedly with the slender young stem project- ing from one of the transverse rugosities of the external sur- face ; the young stem seems at first only composed of the axis, and gradually acquires the inner lamelliferous and outer ve- sicular zones as it increases in size.

The little-known Erismatholites Madreporites duplicatus of Martin's 'Petrificata Derbiensia' may be looked upon as the type of this genus, which 1 have dedicated to Mr. Lonsdale as a slight token of my admiration for his labours in illustrating the structure of fossil corals. It will be seen from the above notice to unite in itself the internal structure of Strombodes (Lithostro- Hon, Lonsd.) with the external character and mode of growth of Cyathophyllum (C. dianthus, &c.).

Lonsdaleia crassiconus (M^Coy). Sp, Char. Corallum forming groups or loosely connected masses of elongate-conical stems, averaging 6 to 7 lines in diameter ; surface with concentric wrinkles and coarse flexuous longitu- dinal striae ; lateral branches rapidly expanding, conical, widen- ing from their base at the rate of 6 lines in 9 lines of length : horizontal section shows a central circular axis \^ line in dia- meter of closely twisted laminae ; outside which is a circular area 3 lines in diameter, of about twenty-four vertical radiating lamellae, with few or no connecting vesicular plates between

Palaozoic Corals and Foraminifera. 13

them ; the outer area composed of small, irregular, curved ve- sicular plates, forming an irregular cellulose texture : vertical section, the central axis of close, spirally and conically twisted laminae ; inner area of one row of distant, delicate, irregular, curved transverse plates forming very open cells ; outer area defined from the inner, formed of loose irregular cellular tissue, of large, slightly-curved vesicular plates, extending obliquely upwards and outwards.

This species is much less irregularly wrinkled than the L. du- plicata (Mart, sp.), forms shorter and more widely turbinated masses, and is distinguished externally at a glance by the lateral branches expanding rapidly from their point of attachment to a conical form, while in the L. duplicata the lateral branches re- tain their original small diameter for a great length (increasing at about the rate of 4 lines in 3 inches), and present a strange contrast to the parent stem, as is faithfully shown in the rough figure of Martin.

In the red carboniferous limestone of Arnside, Kendal ; also near Bakewell, Derbyshire, in the limestone of the same age.

{Col, University of Cambridge.)

Lonsdaleia rugosa (M'Coy).

Sp. Char. Branches 6 or 7 lines in diameter, elongate-conic, ex- ceedingly rugose with large transverse irregular undulations and funnel-shaped irregularities of growth, crossed by coarse, obtuse longitudinal strise (four in the